Wednesday, 7 March 2018

Developmental Psychology The biological factors of Personality development in children






The word personality is derived from the Latin word, persona, which means mask or dress worn by a player or an actor on the stage. Personality is not only the physical appearance rather it comprises the natural impulses, acquired traits, complexes, sentiments, etc. It is the apex and crux of psychology and education. It is the totality of all the traits of a human being.

Development of personality

The development of personality is conditioned or shaped by biological, social and cultural and psychological determinants.The determinants are given below :

Physical personality

Physical differences ie., differences in height, weight, complexion, bodily form or defects influence the personality of the individual.
Height :
The child who has short statures may develop a feeling of inferiority if others tease him about it.
Weight :
 Similarly, if a person is overweight, his playmates, class fellows and friends tease him and he will develop inferiority feelings.

Physical defects:
Physically handicapped children have no well-developed personalities as compared to normal children. For instance, blindness or poor eye sight, deafness or dull hearing directly influence the development of his personality.

Health and strength:

A person who has good health, strength, energy, and vigor generally develops an emotionally balanced attitude towards life and take part in various types of competitions.
Intelligence: There is definitely some relationship between intelligence and personality. Intelligence is mainly hereditary. Persons who are very intelligent can make a better adjustment in home, school, and society than those persons who are less intelligent.

Sex Differences: 

 Boys are generally more assertive, tough minded and vigorous. They have a better need to succeed with regard to interests and aptitudes. Girls show interests in less vigorous games. They are quitter and interested in personal appearances. They have a better sense of fine art. They are more injured by personal, emotional and social problems. Thus sex differences play a vital role in the development of personality of individual.
Nervous system :  

 Nervous system plays a vital role in the development of personality. Man’s intellectual, motor ability, physical strength and ability to adjust depending upon the structure and modification of the nervous system.  Any injury to nervous system will affect the personality of the individual. The nervous system limits one’s learning capacity.          So, it is evident that the development of personality is influenced by the nature of the nervous system.

Endocrine gland : 

 Endocrine glands play an important role influencing the physical , intellectual, emotional, social and moral development of personality. Their malfunctioning has an adverse effect on various aspects of growth and development. Adrenal glands lie on the top of the kidneys. These glands, two in number, secrete separate hormones –cortin and adrenaline. The deficiency of cortin results in Addison ’s disease which causes poor judgment. Adrenaline stimulates the release of blood sugar from the liver to provide more energy in emotions. It also stimulates the heart, which pumps faster and this furnishes more blood to all parts of the body.

 Thyroid gland lies at the base of the neck in front of the windpipe. It has a very important function in the development. If it is overactive the body tissues are overstimulated, the person becomes restless, irritable, worried, nervous, excited, hyperactivity of this gland causes a disease known as cretinism which makes the person slow, sluggish, lethargic, tired and sleepy, depressed, physically and mentally retarded. 

Parathyroid glands are situated in the back of thyroid. These are four small, rounded glands, parathyroid hormone regulates the calcium- phosphorus balance in the blood. Proper calcium-phosphorus balance is necessary for the growth of bones and teeth, for muscle tone and for normal nervous activity. Deficiency of parathormone causes cramps, convulsions and muscular tenseness. 


The pituitary gland is very small, it lies at the base of the brain. It is also called master gland because it influences all the other glands and helps to maintain the chemical equilibrium of the body. If influences physical, intellectual and emotional development of the person.        

         Sex glands are responsible for the sex drive. The male sex glands are called the testes and the female sex glands are called the ovaries. The hormones produced by testes are called the testosterone and the hormones produced by the ovaries are osestrogene, progesterone and relaxin. The hormones of male and female sex glands influence the growth of the characteristics that differentiate the male from the female, ie. , the shape of the body, distribution of hair on the body or on the face, voice etc.

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