What is Socialization, Different definitions,Characteristics and agency of Socialization

Socialization is the process by which individual learns to conform to the norms of the group. At the time of birth, the human infant is just a biological organism with only animal needs and impulses. He knows nothing about what we call society or social behavior. The human child has an innate capacity to learn and to communicate. Therefore, he gradually learns different ways of behavior. Man is a social animal. His personality and character are molded as per the rules regulations and norms of the society, school, and his peers. This process of molding the personality and character of an individual in confirmation with the social norms is called the social norms. It helps an individual to behave in tune with the regulations, customs, and practices of the society.

Different definitions of Socialization :

1.   According to MacIver, “ It is the process by which social beings establish wider and more profound relationship with one another, in which they become more bound up with and more dependent on one on another, in which they develop the sense of their obligation to and responsibility for others and build up the complex structure of nearer and wider association.”
2.   According to Horton and hUnt,” Socialization is the process whereby one internalizes the norms of his group so that a distinct self-emerge, unique to this individual.”
3.   According to Kimball Young, “ Socialization will mean the process of inducting the individual into the social and cultural world of making him a particular member of society and it’s various groups.
4.   According to Fines,” Socialization is  the process of mutual influence between a person and his fellowmen, a process that results in an acceptance of adaptation to the pattern of social behavior.”

5.   According to V.V. Akolkar,” The process of adoption by the individual of the conventional patterns of behavior is described as his socialization.”
6.   Gillin and Gillin ,” By the term Socialization we mean the process by which individual develops into a functioning member of the group according to its standards, conforming to the modes, observing its traditions and adjusting himself to the social situations he meets, sufficiently will to command the tolerance if not admiration of his fellows.”
7.   According to Cooley, “ A social process through which an individual develops his own self by learning the norms and by knowing about his own self from others.”

8.   According to Ogburn,” Socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group.”

9.   According to Bogardus,” Socialization is the process of working together or developing group responsibility of being guided by the welfare needs of others.”

10.               According to Neugaritn,” Socialization is the process by which children learn the ways of their society  and make these part of their own personality.”
11.               According to Arnold Green, “ Socialization is the process by which the child acquires a cultural content, along with selfhood and personality.”

Characetristics of Socialization :

1.   Socialization is a life lon process.
2.   Socialization helps in the inculcation of principles, values, and symbols of a social system.
3.   It enables a person to enact certain roles.
4.   The roles that enact are in accordance with what he has learned from the process.
5.   The roles a person enacts are the expression of his social nature.
6.   The development of the social nature enables the person to participate in social life.
7.   The nature of what one communicates in society is determined by the influence of one’s interaction with the society.

Agency  of Socialization :

Socialization is a continuous process throughout our life, From a social pov, what a child is going to be in life is that what he actually is. The goal of socialization is to turn a child into a useful member of the society which gives him social maturity. Socialization is also a very important part of society, to maintain social order and harmony. There are several agencies which help a chilled in the process of socialization. Here a discussion is made of the three most important ones. They are briefly discussed below :
1.   Family
2.   Community
3.   School


1.   Family: 

The process of socialization begins in the family for most unless he is brought up in an orphanage. The child is born in the family and this is the first agency that will teach and train him to socialize. The family is one of the smallest units of society. It is the most important informal agency of education there is, which helps a child in its proper development.The word family has come from the Roman word “ Famulus” which means “ a servant”. In Roman law, famulus meant the group of producers and slaves, other servants as well as member connected by marriage or common descent. The family is a primary social group and as an agency of socialization, the family performs many functions

The main function that plays for the socialization of the child are given below –

1.   Transmission of Culture: Family plays an important role in transmitting the cultural heritage of the society to the child. It makes the child familiar with customs, conventions, traditions, values, and norms of the society.
2.   Social Development: Family is said to be the cradle of all social virtues. The child learns many of the social patterns, habits, manners, and attitudes which will determine his future social adjustment.
3.   Religious and spiritual development: This is one of the common aspects of every family. Family teaches the child to develop brotherhood of man, belief in God, love for the truth and beauty and good things. All these attitudes are cultivated in the mind of children by the family.
4.   Development of language: Language development is a very important part of socialization. The child learns his tongue which helps to interact with others in his society.
5.   Development of morality: Morality is one of the social norms that create in the society, without morality in the society, the world will be the very cruel place to live in. If the members of the family are honest, the child will also learn to moral, which will make him a reputable person in the society.


2. School:

 School is the most important agency of imparting formal education. It is described as an agency of social change. So, the school is an agency where the child learns to interact with his fellow children in harmony, which will enable him to interact well with others when he grows up. The school has been always considered a miniature society because there are children of each caste, religion or from the different socio-economical background.The school is a the center if social life. 

The school has many functions and some are briefly mentioned below :

1.   Transmission  and promotion of culture :
School is the savior of cultural traditions. It transmits the cultural values of the society to the pupils. Moreover, it helps in the enrichment and modification of culture by constantly reorganizing and reconstructing human experiences.

2.   Promotion of social efficiency :
School is said to be the fountainhead of all social virtues. It is only the mirror of society but it also puts an ideal for the proper functioning of the society.

3.   Post School Adjustability: One important responsibility of the school is to prepare the child for post-school adjustment. The school should produce citizens who are physically fit, intellectually enlightened, emotionally balanced, vocationally efficient and socially well-adjusted, which will ultimately benefit the society.
4.   Training of Leadership: One of the functions of school is to bring forth leaders in various fields, such as sports team, debate team, science project etc. The schools give the opportunity to children to be a leader, which will help them in the future a lot.
5.   Adjustment with social change :
The school acts as an important instrument for social change. The objectives of the school are laid down with the conformity with the societal system, so when there is a change in the society, the school teachers enable the children to understand and cope with the situation.

3. The community :

The community is one of the important agency of socialization. An individual can not live alone. He is always with a group of people who reside in the same locality and share some common social ideas, social customs, and rituals.The community is an organized social group with some degree of ‘we feeling’.  The word “community” has been derived from two Latin words,” Com” meaning “ together” and “ munis” meaning “ to serve”. Thus, “ Community” means “ to serve together”.

Functions of Community :

1.   Community share community sentiments and awareness.
2.   The influence if community on education has to be acknowledgment in as much as education is also a function of the community.
3.   The community also influences the education of its children and their personality development by organizing the teamwork programmes of social ability, religion, exchange of views, and wholesome community recreations.
4.   The community life provides a base for everyone to enjoy sports, drama, music, and festivals. Without community, there are no scope for socialization of the youth.

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