Educational Psychology, Different definitions, Nature and Scopes Jitu Das Blog

Educational psychology is a broad branch of psychology. It is a compound word which consists of two words: education and psychology. Psychology is a science of behavior and experience and education is the modification of behavior. It is one of the most important branches of applied psychology. It is an attempt to apply the knowledge of psychology to the field of education. Educational psychology helps the teacher to foster harmonious development of the student into a responsible and participating citizen.

Different definitions of Education psychology

1.  According to Skinner, “Educational psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning. (1958).
2. According to Noll and others,” Educational psychology is concerned primarily with the study of human behavior as it is changed or directed under, the social process education.

3.  According to E. A. Peel, “ Educational psychology is the science of education.”
4.  According  to Crow  and Crow, “ Educational psychology describes and explains the learning experiences of an individual from birth through old age.”
5.  According to David P. Ausubel, “ Educational psychology is the special branch of psychology concerned with the nature, conditions, outcomes, and evaluation of school learning and retention.”

Nature of Educational Psychology :

The nature of educational psychology as it has been accepted that it is a science of education. The nature of educational psychology are given below :

1.  Applied Science: Educational science as an applied branch of psychology applies the principle of psychology to study the behavior of the children in a learning situation.

2.  Positive science: Educational psychology explains educational facts as they are and does not pass any judgment.

3.  Educational Service: It deals with educational problems only unlike psychology, which deals with the behavior of individuals.

4.   Social science: Educational psychology studies the learner from an educational point of views and the results are applicable to learners in a social situation.

5.   Practical Science: It helps a teacher to solve the various problems that arise in a classroom situation.

The scope of Educational Psychology :


The scope of Educational psychology is wide. It is concerned with the problems of education, its scope can be broadly classified and they are given below :

1.  The learner or the pupil :

Educational psychology helps us to know about the inner abilities, capacities, individual differences, the nature of the conscious and unconscious behavior.

2.  Learning Experiences :

It deals with the development of a child in the learning process. Therefore it plans educational activities suitable for the child on the basis of different development stages.

3.  Behavior

Educational psychology studies the behavior of the learner in a learning situation. It studies the psychological as well as the physiological behavior of the child. It studies all both the psychological basis of behavior such as instincts, emotions, sympathy, imitation etc and physiological behavior.

4.  Individual Differences:

No two individuals are completely alike, they differ both physically and psychologically. Individual differences such as differences in capacities and capabilities, potentialities, and propensities, abilities, and intelligence.

5.  Heredity and Environment :

 Heredity and environment contribute towards the individual differences and growth o the individual.  The goal is gain optimum development.

6.  The learning process :

Educational psychology also makes a detailed study of the learning processes. It studies the nature, theories, methods, and laws of the learning process. It also studies the principles of memory, concept formation, thinking and reasoning and problem-solving.

7.  The learning situation :

It also makes a detailed study of the factors that influence the learning situation i.e. the classroom climate, the relationship of the child with other children.

8.  The Teacher: The teacher is always an integral part of the learning process and it is very necessary for the teacher to know himself very well. Educational psychology helps the teacher to know about his anxieties and conflicts and guides to achieve success in his work.

9.   Evaluation: Measurement and evaluation is another important field s of educational psychology. It gives new and new techniques and tests for measuring intelligence, personality, aptitudes, interests, and achievements.

10.  Study of the unconscious: Educational psychology also attempts to make a study of the complexity of our unconscious mind and the role it plays in our day to day life and seeks to understand the underlying cause that is creating complexity of the unconscious mind.

What is Socialization, Different definitions,Characteristics and agency of Socialization

Socialization is the process by which individual learns to conform to the norms of the group. At the time of birth, the human infant is just a biological organism with only animal needs and impulses. He knows nothing about what we call society or social behavior. The human child has an innate capacity to learn and to communicate. Therefore, he gradually learns different ways of behavior. Man is a social animal. His personality and character are molded as per the rules regulations and norms of the society, school, and his peers. This process of molding the personality and character of an individual in confirmation with the social norms is called the social norms. It helps an individual to behave in tune with the regulations, customs, and practices of the society.

Different definitions of Socialization :

1.   According to MacIver, “ It is the process by which social beings establish wider and more profound relationship with one another, in which they become more bound up with and more dependent on one on another, in which they develop the sense of their obligation to and responsibility for others and build up the complex structure of nearer and wider association.”
2.   According to Horton and hUnt,” Socialization is the process whereby one internalizes the norms of his group so that a distinct self-emerge, unique to this individual.”
3.   According to Kimball Young, “ Socialization will mean the process of inducting the individual into the social and cultural world of making him a particular member of society and it’s various groups.
4.   According to Fines,” Socialization is  the process of mutual influence between a person and his fellowmen, a process that results in an acceptance of adaptation to the pattern of social behavior.”

5.   According to V.V. Akolkar,” The process of adoption by the individual of the conventional patterns of behavior is described as his socialization.”
6.   Gillin and Gillin ,” By the term Socialization we mean the process by which individual develops into a functioning member of the group according to its standards, conforming to the modes, observing its traditions and adjusting himself to the social situations he meets, sufficiently will to command the tolerance if not admiration of his fellows.”
7.   According to Cooley, “ A social process through which an individual develops his own self by learning the norms and by knowing about his own self from others.”

8.   According to Ogburn,” Socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group.”

9.   According to Bogardus,” Socialization is the process of working together or developing group responsibility of being guided by the welfare needs of others.”

10.               According to Neugaritn,” Socialization is the process by which children learn the ways of their society  and make these part of their own personality.”
11.               According to Arnold Green, “ Socialization is the process by which the child acquires a cultural content, along with selfhood and personality.”

Characetristics of Socialization :

1.   Socialization is a life lon process.
2.   Socialization helps in the inculcation of principles, values, and symbols of a social system.
3.   It enables a person to enact certain roles.
4.   The roles that enact are in accordance with what he has learned from the process.
5.   The roles a person enacts are the expression of his social nature.
6.   The development of the social nature enables the person to participate in social life.
7.   The nature of what one communicates in society is determined by the influence of one’s interaction with the society.

Agency  of Socialization :

Socialization is a continuous process throughout our life, From a social pov, what a child is going to be in life is that what he actually is. The goal of socialization is to turn a child into a useful member of the society which gives him social maturity. Socialization is also a very important part of society, to maintain social order and harmony. There are several agencies which help a chilled in the process of socialization. Here a discussion is made of the three most important ones. They are briefly discussed below :
1.   Family
2.   Community
3.   School


1.   Family: 

The process of socialization begins in the family for most unless he is brought up in an orphanage. The child is born in the family and this is the first agency that will teach and train him to socialize. The family is one of the smallest units of society. It is the most important informal agency of education there is, which helps a child in its proper development.The word family has come from the Roman word “ Famulus” which means “ a servant”. In Roman law, famulus meant the group of producers and slaves, other servants as well as member connected by marriage or common descent. The family is a primary social group and as an agency of socialization, the family performs many functions

The main function that plays for the socialization of the child are given below –

1.   Transmission of Culture: Family plays an important role in transmitting the cultural heritage of the society to the child. It makes the child familiar with customs, conventions, traditions, values, and norms of the society.
2.   Social Development: Family is said to be the cradle of all social virtues. The child learns many of the social patterns, habits, manners, and attitudes which will determine his future social adjustment.
3.   Religious and spiritual development: This is one of the common aspects of every family. Family teaches the child to develop brotherhood of man, belief in God, love for the truth and beauty and good things. All these attitudes are cultivated in the mind of children by the family.
4.   Development of language: Language development is a very important part of socialization. The child learns his tongue which helps to interact with others in his society.
5.   Development of morality: Morality is one of the social norms that create in the society, without morality in the society, the world will be the very cruel place to live in. If the members of the family are honest, the child will also learn to moral, which will make him a reputable person in the society.


2. School:

 School is the most important agency of imparting formal education. It is described as an agency of social change. So, the school is an agency where the child learns to interact with his fellow children in harmony, which will enable him to interact well with others when he grows up. The school has been always considered a miniature society because there are children of each caste, religion or from the different socio-economical background.The school is a the center if social life. 

The school has many functions and some are briefly mentioned below :

1.   Transmission  and promotion of culture :
School is the savior of cultural traditions. It transmits the cultural values of the society to the pupils. Moreover, it helps in the enrichment and modification of culture by constantly reorganizing and reconstructing human experiences.

2.   Promotion of social efficiency :
School is said to be the fountainhead of all social virtues. It is only the mirror of society but it also puts an ideal for the proper functioning of the society.

3.   Post School Adjustability: One important responsibility of the school is to prepare the child for post-school adjustment. The school should produce citizens who are physically fit, intellectually enlightened, emotionally balanced, vocationally efficient and socially well-adjusted, which will ultimately benefit the society.
4.   Training of Leadership: One of the functions of school is to bring forth leaders in various fields, such as sports team, debate team, science project etc. The schools give the opportunity to children to be a leader, which will help them in the future a lot.
5.   Adjustment with social change :
The school acts as an important instrument for social change. The objectives of the school are laid down with the conformity with the societal system, so when there is a change in the society, the school teachers enable the children to understand and cope with the situation.

3. The community :

The community is one of the important agency of socialization. An individual can not live alone. He is always with a group of people who reside in the same locality and share some common social ideas, social customs, and rituals.The community is an organized social group with some degree of ‘we feeling’.  The word “community” has been derived from two Latin words,” Com” meaning “ together” and “ munis” meaning “ to serve”. Thus, “ Community” means “ to serve together”.

Functions of Community :

1.   Community share community sentiments and awareness.
2.   The influence if community on education has to be acknowledgment in as much as education is also a function of the community.
3.   The community also influences the education of its children and their personality development by organizing the teamwork programmes of social ability, religion, exchange of views, and wholesome community recreations.
4.   The community life provides a base for everyone to enjoy sports, drama, music, and festivals. Without community, there are no scope for socialization of the youth.

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Eucational Sociology, Different definitions, Nature and Scopes

Educational sociology is a synthesis of education and sociology.A new branch of sociology called “ Educational sociology “ has developed that deals with the impact of the society on education. First, we should know what is sociology. In simple terms, sociology can be said to be the study of the social system. It is a subject which studies about the totality of human life and activity. The word “ Sociology” has been derived from two words- ‘ socius’ a Latin word, which means “ companion or associate’ and ‘logos’ a Greek word, which means ‘ study of or science’. From this, we can say that sociology is the study of human society as society is a cluster of people who are connected with each other. Educational sociology is the part of sociology that studies the educational impact on the society. The father of Educational psychology George Pyne, who in his book “ Principles of Educational Psychology” discusses the influence of education group life and the influence of group life on education. He also discussed the social influences which play a role in the all-round development of human beings. Educational sociology is neither education nor sociology alone. It utilizes all that has been earned in both the fields but joins that in a new science by applying sociological principles to the whole process of education including subject matter, activities, methods of teaching, social organization, management, evaluation.

Different definitions of Educational Sociology 

There is number of definitions regarding educational sociology. The following definitions will help us to understand more about what is educational sociology.
1.  According to George Pyne,” Educational  sociology is the science which describes and explains institutions, groups, and social processes in relation to the educational system in its evolution and changing function.”
2.  According to Brown, “ Educational sociology is the study of the interaction of the individual and each cultural environment, which includes other individuals, social groups, and patterns of behavior.
3.  According to Ottoway, “ Educational sociology indicates that education is an activity which goes on in a society and its aim and methods depend on the nature of society in which it takes place.
4.  According to Good, “ Educational sociology is the scientific study of how people live in social groups especially including the study of education that is obtained by the living in the social groups and education that is needed by the members to live efficiently in social groups.”
5.  According to Snedden,” Educational sociology has as its chief province the scientific determination of educational objective. It constitutes an applied or linking science between the fields of sociology( as a pure science) and social economy ( as the science of all phases of human well being) on the one hand and the practice of education on the other.”
6.  According to Dr. Lakhshahira Das,” Educational sociology is a branch of general sociology which deals with issues and problems of social interaction that possess educative value and significance and which could bring about socially desirable ends in peaceful and efficient manner.’’


Nature of Educational Sociology :


Educational sociology is not only theoretical but also practical nature. As a theoretical science, it tries to study about the forces which lead to interaction between the individual and the social group or society. The nature of educational sociology are as follows –

1.  Man is a social being and educational sociology recognizes the social nature of man and plans accordingly.
2.  Educational sociology helps us to provide a social basis for educational researchers,
3.  Educational sociology acts as the bridge between society and education system.
4.  Educational sociology determines the individuality of an individual in the society, which is very important.
5.  Educational sociology deals with the participation of the individual in different social functions and organizations
6.  Educational sociology is a dynamic and ever-changing process.
7.  It is the job of educational sociology to find out ways and means as to how to manipulate the educational process to achieve better personal development.

The scope of Educational sociology 

The subject matter of educational sociology has the constant and dynamic interaction of the individual and his cultural environment or the basic pattern of life. The scope of Educational sociology includes the following :

1.   The social milieu ( A persons social environment) can be broken up into, what George Pyne calls,” Social independencies). These are institutions, social groups, social customs, and conventions. Through these the individual gains and organizes his experiences and these influences the evolution of the educational system because it equips the youth with knowledge and character to function well in the social system. 

2.  Educational sociology is concerned with the sciences which help to understand its function in its various aspects and not concerned with aspects of any science which do not condition personality development. The personal development of an individual is developed in the family through the process of interaction. The business of educational sociology is to discover the area of interaction within the family and then in the school or elsewhere. Sociology would, however, confine itself to the history of the development of family and its various patters. Sociology deals with social theory and group phenomena, but ignores the educative process and the educational agencies.

3.  Educational sociology is also related to educational psychology. Both of them deal with the school as the agency of education. Both of them are applied science and seeks to determine and influence the school’s effect on the individual behavior. But educational sociology is not just limited to that; it also deals with individual’s relation to society. It regards school as a social institution, a part of total social milieu, a form of collective behavior. The curriculum of the educational sociology and teaching methods are organized to prepare the children for participation in social life. The main difference between educational psychology and educational sociology is that the former deals with the process of learning and the later one deals with the problem of personality or behavior.

4.  The most significant recent development in psychology has been the increasing recognition of environmental factors in the development of personality development. The line between psychology and sociology is a bit blurry today. Where Biology provides us the data that forms the basis of the individual’s behavior, Sociology studies how the laws of genetics and impulses determine an individual’s interaction with others as an individual or in a group. Educational sociology ultimately seeks to influence this interaction in harmony with social ideas. The main theme of the scope of the educational sociology is a social relationship of all types and how they influence the personality development of the pupils.

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Impact of Liberalization and globalization in education in India


Both Globalization and liberalization has impacted the education mostly for better. But there are some negative impacts too. Liberlization has made the laws more flexible for other countries to do business in India. And Globalization has created a India a part of global village, though India has been always a global market. People have come to India to do business for thousands of yeras. Below the positive and negative impacts are given.

Positive Impact of Liberalization

In the Indian economy, a major part is contributed by the service industry but now the education sector will become a large economic source.
After liberalization constant fund will also facilitate a research-based career and give an option for the bright future of Indian teachers and students.
It will expand the supply and the competition among educational institutions will ensure that they do not charge the excessive premium for education.
Liberalisation offers students an option of studying near home. It also curbs brain drain which is also a nationless.

5.   The Graduates with specific skills allow corporate to ensure the development of the better industry.With the liberalization policy, there is a tremendous change in educated population that implies rapid developments in technology and communications.

6.   Education is continuous because it does not end with graduation so the system also keeps on changing as the nation grows and adding recent advancement.

7.       Foreign higher educational institutes would create competition with the local institutes making them internationally competitive. Also, FDI in education would create new institutes and infrastructure and generate employment.

8.   One country includes expertise in some subject and another country may have in some other subject so if they exchange their knowledge it benefits both the countries.

Negative Impact of Liberalization

Private firms using the opportunity of liberalization to convert education into a business and take the stocky amount of fee and provide low quality of education. So, those colleges who supply education without efficient faculty
and environment, having very short future perspective.

2.   FDI in any field does not have an attached objective of fulfilling social agenda of the welfare state. It is guided by profit and market. This would result in the commoditization of education. There is a shortage of funds in the higher education sector. And there are not many ways in which this investment in this sector can be increased domestically.

3.   As per past observations, most foreign institutes target market by investing in technical courses for their business perspective only rather than in quality education and research which is important for creating and developing the human resource.

4.   Corruption is widespread in the education system in India. Due to overkill competition, a number of colleges and Universities awarding false degrees, taking a bribe to clear the exams, and going through the unfair lane for marking. It puts a negative impact on local education institutes because they have limited capital and they have to face tough competition from reputed ones because national certificates will be less valued as compared to the world recognized certificates.

Higher education is largely an unregulated market. In India, there are uninformed or simply dubious institutions who provide partnerships with low-quality colleges and universities in India. There are prestigious universities hoping to build links overseas, recruit top students to their home campuses and strengthen their brand abroad. But there is no dearth of mere sub-prime and low-end private institutions which are seeking to stave off bankruptcy through the export market and there are even a few.

Impact of Globalization on education

It is a widely defined word with several connotations to many different people. There has been a hot debate about globalization. Some people believe globalization is a dangerous phenomenon which has changed the world in negative ways. To them, globalization has brought undesirable consequences to society, affecting its peace. On the other hand, another group of people regards globalization as a fruitful phenomenon, making the world more connected and informed than ever before. They look at it as a novel source of optimism in the world. It is clear that this group see various advantages of globalization.
The impact of globalization has been both positive and negative in the sector of education.

Listed below are some points that highlight the positive and negative impacts globalization in education has led to.

1. Globalization has radically transformed the world in every aspect. But it has especially transformed the world economy which has become increasingly interconnected and inter-dependent. But it also made the world economy increasingly competitive and more knowledge-based, especially in the developed western countries

2.  Global education interconnects methods of teaching from worldwide systems to encourage the international development of environmental sustainability, as well as a contribution toward fortifying global industries. These educational initiatives prioritize global access to the school from the primary to the university levels, instigating learning experiences that prepare students for multinational leadership roles.

3. As education serves as foundational to global stability, the development of multicultural awareness from an early age may integrate ideologies sourced from various societies in order to arrive at well-balanced conclusions regarding issues that surround the world as a whole. Globalization and education then come to affect one another through mutual goals of preparing young people for successful futures during which their nations will grow increasingly connected.

4. With globalization, some of the challenges for knowledge, education, and learning will provide today’s learners the ability to be more familiar and comfortable with abstract concepts and uncertain situations.

5. Information society and global economy require a holistic understanding of systems thinking, including the world system and business eco-system. Globalization uses a holistic approach to the problems. The interdisciplinary research approaches are seen as critical to achieving a more comprehensive understanding the complex reality currently facing the world system.

6. It enhances the student’s ability to manipulate symbols. Highly productive employment in today’s economy will require the learner to constantly manipulate symbols, such as political, legal and business terms, and digital money.

7.  Globalization enhances the student’s ability to acquire and utilize knowledge. Globalization enhances the ability of learners to access, assess, adapt, and apply knowledge, to think independently to exercise appropriate judgment and to collaborate with others to make sense of new situations.

8. Globalization produces an increased quantity of scientifically and technically trained persons. The emerging economy is based on knowledge as a key factor of production and the industries demand the employees remain highly trained in science and technology.

9. It encourages students to work in teams. To be able to work closely in teams is the need for employees. Working in teams requires students to develop skills in-group dynamics, compromise, debate, persuasion, organization, and leadership and management skills.

10. Globalization breaks the boundaries of space and time. Using advanced information and communications technologies, a new system of knowledge, education, and learning should apply a wide range of synchronous and asynchronous activities that aid teacher and student in breaking boundaries of space and time.

11.Globalization meets the knowledge, education and learning challenges and opportunities of the Information Age. Knowledge-based businesses often complain that graduates lack the capacity to learn new skills and assimilate new knowledge. Globalization makes it easier for businesses.

12. Globalization creates and supports information technologists, policymakers, and practitioners for the purpose of rethinking education and supports mechanisms for the exchange of ideas and experiences in the use of educational technologies.

13.Globalization encourages explorations, experimentation to push the frontiers of the potential of information technologies and communications for more effective learning.

15. Global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels.

16. Mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals.

17. Creating values and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth.

18. Promoting international understanding, collaboration, harmony, and acceptance of cultural diversity across countries and regions.

19. Facilitating communications, interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.


The potential fallback of globalization in education can be the increased technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries.

1.   Globalization in education may end up creating more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries for a new form of colonization of developing countries.

2.   Just because of technology and communication seems to be creating in human life between the „haves‟ and the „have not’s‟, resulting in a bifurcated society of those who can afford such information technology and those who cannot, so too does globalization. While education institutions in Western societies are adopting the technology, less developed countries are once again left behind, very weak and fragile
to implement development programs for education. While less developed countries motivate their citizens to seek more education, severe limitations in delivering basic services are a problem. A lack of infrastructure and funding makes it difficult to implement any technological and communication development.

3. The capitalist society is gradually becoming global with a strong focus on free trade emerging. Educational institution obviously has reacted accordingly, by becoming more market-oriented, focusing their energy more on creating capitals rather than providing sufficient education for students.(Benking,1997)

4.   There is some negative impact of globalization such as this process made the disparity between rural and urban Indian joblessness, the growth of slum capitals and the threat of terrorist activities. Globalization increased competition in the Indian market between the foreign companies and domestic companies. With the foreign goods being better than the Indian goods, the consumer preferred to buy the foreign goods. This reduced the amount of profit of the Indian Industry companies. This happened mainly in the pharmaceutical, manufacturing, chemical, and steel industries.

5.   The Negative Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry are that with the coming of technology the number of labor required is decreased and this resulted in increasing unemployment especially in the arena of the pharmaceutical, chemical, manufacturing, and cement industries. Some section of people in India that are poor does not get the benefit of globalization. There is an increased gap between rich and poor that lead to some criminal activities. Ethical responsibility of business has been reduced. Another major negative effect of globalization in India is that youngsters of India leaving their studies very early and joining Call centers to earn fast money reducing their social life after getting habituated with monotonous work. There is an increase of every daily usable commodity. This has an adverse effect on cultural aspect. The institution of marriage is breaking down at a fast rate. There are more people approaching divorce courts instead of maintaining marital life.

6.   Globalization has a considerable impact on the religious situation in India. Globalization has brought about raising a population who is agnostic and atheist. People visiting places of worship are reducing with time. Globalization has reduced nationalism and patriotism in the country.

7.   It can be said that Globalization is motivating factor in the current business environment. There are few challenges for companies due to globalization such as Migration, relocation, labor shortages, competition, and changes in skills and technology. Globalization powerfully influences the social partners' attitudes since traditional labor relations have to cope with completely new and very dynamic situations. In the political field, globalization helps to eradicate poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy, ill-health and fighting cross-border terrorism and global terrorism. 

8.   Globalisation benefits the scheduled caste people in promoting cultural homogeneity in the way of loosening of the ideas of pollution and purity and eradication of untouchability and so many socio-cultural and economic disabilities associated with them. The globalization of goods has developed enthusiasm in India for western brand names. A consumerist mentality has been carefully fostered. This leads to an adversative impact on the tendency to save or the domestic accumulation of capital.

9.   Lastly, in Indian scenario, globalization developed a consumer credit society. Today, people can buy goods and services even if they do not have sufficient purchasing power and the prospect of raising a loan has become easy in the age of globalization. Credit cards have given a boost to consumerism and pushed many households into indebtedness. At the same time, globalization has an unfavorable impact on mass-media in India. Currently, realistic coverage of events and happening doesn't receive much importance because it doesn't determine the standing of a newspaper or TV channel. Globalisation has brought a violation of journalistic ethics in India.


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